Offshore corporations often hold investments in subsidiaries and/or associated companies, publicly quoted and private companies, as well as joint venture projects. Capital gains arising from the disposal of particular investments can be made without taxation. In the case of dividend payments, reduced levels of tax on income can be achieved by utilising a company incorporated in a zero or low tax jurisdiction that has double tax agreements with the contracting state.

Many large corporations are interested in investing in countries where no double tax agreement exists between the country of the investor and the country in which they are investing. In this case, an intermediary company is established in a jurisdiction with a suitable treaty. For example, the Madeira SGPS Company has been used for investments in the European Union, since corporate entities registered there can avail themselves of the EU Parent/Subsidiary Directive. Cyprus has an extensive double tax treaty network with many Eastern European countries and countries of the former Soviet Union, and the use of Cypriot companies for inward investment into these countries provides a tax efficient conduit.

For a country to be an attractive location in which to set up a holding company 4 criteria must be satisfied:

Incoming Dividends: Incoming dividends remitted by the subsidiary to the holding company must either be exempted from or subject to low withholding tax rates in the subsidiary’s jurisdiction.

Dividend Income Received: Dividend income received by the holding company from the subsidiary must either be exempted from or subject to low corporate income tax rates in the holding company’s jurisdiction.

Capital Gains Tax on Sale of Shares: Profits realized by the holding company on the sale of shares in the subsidiary must either be exempt from or subject to a low rate of capital gains tax in the holding company’s jurisdiction.

Outgoing Dividends: Outgoing dividends paid by the holding company to the ultimate parent corporation must either be exempt from or subject to low withholding tax rates in the holding company’s jurisdiction.

The following jurisdictions are best qualified for the holding company formation purposes: Luxembourg, Netherlands , Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Norway.